Cortex 101: Dissecting Observables a Hundred Ways

TheHive Project’s Code Chefs are glad to announce that, thanks to the precious contributions of the user community, Cortex has broken the one hundred analyzer mark.

Cortex-Analyzers version 1.14.0 is out and includes new analyzers, some improvements and some bug fixes.

New Analyzers

New and enhanced analyzers, described below, are:

  • Cisco Investigate by Cisco Umbrella Research @opendns
  • Proofpoint Forensics Lookup by Emmanuel Torquato
  • Proofpoint Threat Insight Forensics Analyzer by Emmanuel Torquato
  • RecordedFuture by jojoob
  • urlscan.io search by ninoseki
  • Google DNS over HTTP by 0xswitch
  • RTF files support in FileInfo by Nils Kuhnert
  • Datascan and Inetnum flavors in Onyphe analyzer by Pierre Baudry and Adrien Barchapt

Again, huge thanks for the awesome work that has been performed by all our contributors!

Investigate

Cisco Umbrella Investigate provides threat intelligence about domains and IP addresses accross the Internet. The analyzer can be used to query the Cisco Umbrella (formerly OpenDNS) API and get information about an IP or a domain name. An API key is required to use this analyzer.

Results are displayed in TheHive in the following manner:

sc-investigate-short

sc-investigate-long
Cisco Investigate: short and long reports

Proofpoint Forensics Lookup

According to Proofpoint’s website, the Forensics API allows insight in detailed forensic evidences about individual threats or compaigns. The analyzer can be used to check observables against given indicators of compromise stored in the ProofPoint service.

Unfortunately, there are currently no sample report screenshots available, because TheHive’s Core Team does not have access to Proofpoint services. Also, due to the same reason, this analyzer could not be tested by us. If you have access to the service and can test the analyzer and/or provide report screenshots, please let us know.

RecordedFuture

This analyzer lets you get the latest risk data from RecordedFuture for a hash, domain or an IP address. It can be used to query the API and get information. An API key is required to use this analyzer.

Results are displayed in TheHive in the following manner:

sc-recordedfuture-short

sc-recordedfuture-long
RecordedFuture: short and long reports

Urlscan.io search

Urlscan.io is a service that scans and analyzes websites. Submitted pages will be browsed like a regular user would do and every activity gets recorded. The analyzer submitted by ninoseki queries urlscan without initiating a scan which would be publicly visible on the website. Accepted datatypes for this analyzer are URL, domain, hash and IP.

The templates which display the results of the analyzer look like the following screenshots:

Screenshot from 2018-10-25 09-55-34

Screenshot from 2018-10-25 09-48-58
Urlscan.io: short and long reports

Google DNS over HTTP

This analyzer provides DNS information for an IP, a domain or a FQDN by making calls to Google DNS-over-HTTP (DoH). No API key is required.

Results are displayed in TheHive in the following manner:sc-googleDNS-short

sc-googleDNS-long
Google DNS: short and long reports

RTF files support in FileInfo

The FileInfo meta analyzer has been improved and now leverages the rtfobj tool provided in the Oletools suite by Decalage.

Results are displayed in TheHive in the following manner:

sc-fileinfo_RTF-short

sc-rtfobj-long
FileInfo with rtfobj: short and long reports

Datascan and Inetnum flavors in Onyphe analyzer

The Onyphe analyzer has been enhanced with two new flavors. Datascan provides information about known open ports on a specific IP, and Inetnum enumerates all known network information about the analyzed IP address.

An API key is required to use the analyzer and can be obtained by creating an account on the Onyphe website.

Results are displayed in TheHive in the following manner:

sc-onyphe-inetnum-short

sc-onyphe_inetnum-long
Onyphe  Inetnum: short and long reports

sc-onyphe_datascan-short

sc-onyphe_datascan-long
Onyphe Datascan: long and short reports

Bug fixes and enhancements

  • #248: Improve error msg when VT Get Report does not have an entry for
  • #323: Fix an issue with HybridAnalysis analyzer filenames handler
  • #329: Enhance PassiveTotal Passive DNS report
  • #348: Fix a typo in URLhaus’s long.html
  • #356 : Force the use of Python3 in MISP analyzer
  • #362: Fix file not found issue and empty result set in CERT.at passive DNS analyzer

Get It While Supply Lasts!

Each analyzer comes with its own, pip compatible requirements.txt file. To update your Cortex analyzers to 1.14.0, run the following commands:

cd path/to/Cortex-Analyzers
git pull
for I in analyzers/*/requirements.txt; do sudo -H pip2 install -U -r $I || true; done && \
for I in analyzers/*/requirements.txt; do sudo -H pip3 install -U -r $I || true; done

Once done, do not forget to login to Cortex as an orgadmin and click on the Refresh Analyzers button. Refer to the online Cortex documentation for further details.

Update TheHive Report Templates

If you are using TheHive, get the latest version of  the report templates and import them into TheHive.

Running Into Trouble?

Shall you encounter any difficulty, please join our  user forum, contact us on Gitter, or send us an email at support@thehive-project.org. We will be more than happy to help!

Hold your breath and git pull

Cortex-Analyzer 1.13.0 is out and includes new analyzers, some improvements and few bug fixes :

  • Hunter.io has been contributed by Rémi Allain (@remiallain)
  • DShield lookup contributed by Xavier Martens (@xme)
  • Pulsedive contributed by Nils Kuhnert (@3c7, TheHive Project)
  • FileInfo has been enhanced with Manalyze submodule for PE analysis ; by @lctrcl and Nils Kuhnert (@3c7)
  • Thanks to @silrumpa, the Fortiguard_URLCategory analyzer has been updated and let you configure categories and customize theirs maliciousness level
  • PhishingInitiative analyzer has been flavoured with a scan facility, thanks to Rémi Pointel

Huge thanks for the awesome work that has been performed by all our contributors!

Hunterio_DomainSearch

Hunter.io is a search engine that lets you find emails associated with a given domain name. The analyzer can be used to query the API and get a list of email addresses for a specific domain name. An API key is required to use this analyzer and can be obtained by registering on the website.

Results are displayed in TheHive in the following manner:

sc-hunterio-short

sc-hunterio-long
Hunterio_DomainSearch: short and long report samples

DShield_lookup

The analyzer lets you query the famous SANS Internet Storm Center (ISC) DShield API and look up IP address reputation. No API key is needed to run this analyzer.

Results are displayed in TheHive in the following manner:

sc-dshield-short
sc-dshield-long
DShield_lookup: short and long report templates

Pulsedive_GetIndicator

Pulsedive is a Threat Intelligence platform that allows you to enrich your observables. The analyzer can be used to query  the API and get information about a domain name,  hash, IP or URL. An API key is required to use this analyzer and can be acquired by creating an account on the webiste.

Results are displayed in TheHive in the following manner:

sc-pulsedive-short

sc-pulsedive-long
Pulsedive_GetIndicator: short and long report templates

Manalyze joins FileInfo

Manalyze is a tool developed by Ivan Kwiatkowski (@JusticeRage) that lets you analyze, operate PE (Portable Executable) and collect useful artifacts that help the analyst in determining its maliciousness.

@lctrcl wrote an analyzer that triggers Manalyze on a PE file and gives the analyst a useful report. Nils Kuhnert (@3c7) from TheHive Project then included this analyzer as a submodule into our FileInfo meta-analyzer for files ; it can run Manalyze from compiled binary, or, if your Cortex server is ready for that, through the right docker. If you decide to use the compiled binary, please follow instruction from Manalyze github page.

This submodule is disabled by default. To use it, you have to set some configuration in Cortex:

sc-fileinfo-config
FileInfo: configuration for Manalyze in Cortex

Results are displayed in TheHive in the following manner:

sc-fileinfo-short3

sc-fileinfo-long3
Manalyze submodule: short and long report templates

Fortiguard_URLCategory

This analyzer has been enhanced to let analysts choose categories considered as malicious or suspicious. It comes with a default configuration but you can setup your own by selecting the categories from the Fortiguard website.

sc-fortiguard-config
Fortiguard_URLCategory: default configuration for categories  in Cortex

Select which categories you want to be considered malicious or suspicious, and others will be considered by the analyzer as info. Analyzed observables that are not categorised by Fortigard service is considered as safe.

PhishingInitiative_Scan

PhishingInitiative has been enhanced with a new scan flavor. This let the analyst submit an URL to the webservice. An API key is needed to run this analyzer and can be obtained by registering on the website.

Results are displayed in TheHive in the following manner:

sc-phishinginitiative-short

sc-phishinginitiative-long
PhishingInitiative_Scan: short and long report samples

Bug fixes

  • #335 : fix a bug in MISP analyzer
  • #340 : fix short report template in C1fApp
  • #339 : fix short and mini reports for Domaintools Whois history flavor

Get It While Supply Lasts!

Each analyzer comes with its own, pip compatible requirements.txt file. To update your Cortex analyzers to 1.13.0, run the following commands:

cd path/to/Cortex-Analyzers
git pull
for I in analyzers//requirements.txt; do sudo -H pip2 install -r $I; done && \
for I in analyzers/
/requirements.txt; do sudo -H pip3 install -r $I || true; done

Once done, do not forget to login to Cortex as an orgadmin and click on the Refresh Analyzers button. Refer to the online Cortex documentation for further details.

Update TheHive Report Templates

If you are using TheHive, get the latest version of  the report templates and import them into TheHive.

Running Into Trouble?

Shall you encounter any difficulty, please join our  user forum, contact us on Gitter, or send us an email at support@thehive-project.org. We will be more than happy to help!

Correction: September 25, 2018
The link to the report templates was incorrect.

EmlParser: a New Cortex Analyzer for EML Files

The new EmlParser analyzer which we included in Cortex-Analyzers 1.12.0 leverages the eml_parser python library written by GOVCERT-LU. It parses EML email,  a MIME RFC 822 standard format, and extract all the information to help the analyst triage and investigate. EmlParser will prove very useful when analyzing observables imported from Synapse alerts.

You might notice that the analyzer’s requirements.txt installs the eml_parser library from one of our repositories. The original library dependencies contains file_magic library which brokes other analyzers that use python-magic. GOVCERT-LU is addressing this situation in their code but the installation process still considers file-magic as a mandatory library. We decided to consider it as an extra requirement.

Screen Shot 2018-07-26 at 08.19.11.png
Screen Shot 2018-07-26 at 08.19.31.png
EmlParser: short and long report samples

Get It While Supply Lasts!

To update your Cortex analyzers to 1.12.0, run the following commands:

cd path/to/Cortex-Analyzers

git pull

for I in analyzers/*/requirements.txt; do sudo -H pip2 install -r $I; done && \

for I in analyzers/*/requirements.txt; do sudo -H pip3 install -r $I || true; done

Once done, do not forget to login to Cortex as an orgadmin and click on the Refresh Analyzers button.

Update TheHive Report Templates

If you are using TheHive, get the latest version of  the report templates and import them into TheHive.

Running Into Trouble?

Shall you encounter any difficulty, please join our  user forum, contact us on Gitter, or send us an email at support@thehive-project.org. We will be more than happy to help!

Keep Them Coming: Hashdd, URLhaus & a Revamped FileInfo analyzer

We are happy to announce the immediate availability of a new major version of Cortex-Analyzers. Version 1.11.0 includes two brand new analyzers, several updates and a few bug fixes:

  • Hashdd, contributed by  iosonogio
  • URLhaus, contributed by  ninoseki
  • The Domaintools analyzer has been updated with two new flavors: Risk and Reputation
  • The VirusTotal analyzer can (finally!) get reports for URL observables
  • MsgParser and File_Info have been merged in a new, shiny, completely rewritten FileInfo analyzer

As we are approaching the 90 analyzers mark, we wholeheartedly thank our user community for continuously contributing new analyzers, testing them and helping us improve the existing ones.

Important Notice

We made significant changes in this release in the analyzers and short reports. Prior to Cortex-Analyzers 1.11.0, the summary() function in the analyzer code generates a result such as:

"taxonomies": [{
     "level": "suspicious",
     "namespace": "DT",
     "predicate": "Risk",
     "value": "\"10\""
 }]

Double quotes were included in the resulting value. We decided to update the summary() function and make it generate the same result without double quotes :

"taxonomies": [{
     "level": "suspicious",
     "namespace": "DT",
     "predicate": "Risk",
     "value": "10"
 }]

To display the double quotes in TheHive, we updated all short reports to include them:

<span class="label" ng-repeat="t in content.taxonomies" ng-class="{'info': 'label-info', 'safe': 'label-success', 'suspicious': 'label-warning', 'malicious':'label-danger'}[t.level]">
     {{t.namespace}}:{{t.predicate}}="{{t.value}}"
</span>

Hashdd

hashdd.com is a search engine for file hashes which automatically queries 3rd party services like VirusTotal and enriches the information provided based on the 3rd party data. The analyzer includes two flavors: Status and Detail. The first one is used to query hashdd without an API key for the threat level only. The latter produces additional meta information about the sample, but requires an API key.

Results are displayed in TheHive in the following manner:

Hashdd short report

Hashdd status long report

Hashdd detail long report
hashdd — short and long report samples

URLhaus

URLhaus, a service that shares the latest malware download URLs and reports those sites to their respective hosting companies, can now be queried for domains, URLs and hashes. If the observable is found, available information will be displayed as follows:

URLhaus short report

URLhaus long report
URLhaus – short and long report samples

Domaintools Risk and Reputation

New Risk and Reputation services from Domaintools have been added as new flavors to the existing Domaintools analyzer set.

Risk Evidence

The DomainTools Risk Score predicts the risk level and likely threats from a domain that has not been observed in malicious activities, by analyzing various properties of the domain as soon as it is registered.

sc-DTrisk-short

sc-DTrisk-long
Domaintools Risk Evidence – short and long report

Reputation

The Domaintools Reputation Score gives indications about how closely a domain is related to known bad domains, actors, and IPs.

sc-DTReputation-short

sc-DTReputation-long
Domaintools Reputation – short and long report samples

An All New FileInfo

FileInfo performs local static analysis of file observables. It has been completely rewritten from the ground up to be more flexible thus it can easily be enriched with new supported file types and analysis modules. We took this opportunity to merge MsgParser, in charge of extracting and displaying Outlook emails into FileInfo.

As of this release, FileInfo now supports PDF, PE, MS Office documents and Outlook .msg files. We also added support for DDE detection and link extraction in MS Office documents, thanks to Decalage who added this in Oletools since v0.52.

sc-FileInfo-short

sc-FileInfo-long2
FileInfo – short and long report samples

Bug fixes

  • #286 : we updated the way MISP analyzer validates its SSL configuration

  • #292 : we fixed the API URL of malwares.com in the Malwares analyzer

Get It While Supply Lasts!

Each analyzer comes with its own, pip compatible requirements.txt file. To update your Cortex analyzers to 1.11.0, run the following commands:

cd path/to/Cortex-Analyzers
git pull
for I in analyzers/*/requirements.txt; do sudo -H pip2 install -r $I; done && \
for I in analyzers/*/requirements.txt; do sudo -H pip3 install -r $I || true; done

Once done, do not forget to login to Cortex as an orgadmin and click on the Refresh Analyzers button.

Update TheHive Report Templates

If you are using TheHive, get the latest version of  the report templates and import them into TheHive.

Running Into Trouble?

Shall you encounter any difficulty, please join our  user forum, contact us on Gitter, or send us an email at support@thehive-project.org. We will be more than happy to help!

Cortex Hits the 30 Analyzers Mark

Cortex has now 30 analyzers thanks to Daniil Yugoslavskiy, Davide Arcuri and Andrea Garavaglia (from LDO-CERT) as well as our longtime friend Sébastien Larinier. Their contributions, all under an AGPLv3 license, add handy ways to assess observables and obtain invaluable insight to an already solid Threat Intelligence and DFIR toolset.

In addition to these 3 new analyzers, v 1.7.0 of the Cortex-Analyzers repository also fixes a number of bugs and add a few improvements to existing analyzers as well.

To get the new release, go to your existing Cortex-Analyzers folder and run git pull.

HybridAnalysis

The HybridAnalysis analyzer has been contributed by Daniil Yugoslavskiy. It fetches Hybrid Analysis reports associated with hashes and filenames. This analyzer comes in only one flavor called HybridAnalysis_GetReport.

Requirements

You need to have or create a free Hybrid Analysis account.  Follow the instructions outlined on the Hybrid Analysis API page to generate an API key/secret pair. Provide the API key as a value for the key parameter and the secret as a value to the secret parameter, add the lines below to the config section of /etc/cortex/application.conf then restart the cortex service.

HybridAnalysis {
  secret = "mysecret"
  key = "myAPIKEY"
}

When run from TheHive, the analyzer produces short and long reports such as the following:

sc-short-hybridanalysis_1_0.png

TheHive: HybridAnalysis 1.0 Analyzer – Short and Long Report Samples
TheHive: HybridAnalysis 1.0 Analyzer – Short and Long Report Samples

EmergingThreats

The EmergingThreats analyzer has been submitted by Davide Arcuri and Andrea Garavaglia  from LDO-CERT. It leverages Proofpoint’s Emerging Threats Intelligence service to assess the reputation of various observables and obtain additional and valuable information on malware.

The service comes in three flavors:

  • EmergingThreats_DomainInfo: retrieve ET reputation, related malware, and IDS requests for a given domain.
  • EmergingThreats_IPInfo: retrieve ET reputation, related malware, and IDS requests for a given IP address.
  • EmergingThreats_MalwareInfo: retrieve ET details and info related to a malware hash.

Requirements

You need a valid Proofpoint ET Intelligence subscription.  Retrieve the API key associated with your account and provide it as a value to the key parameter, add the lines below to the config section of /etc/cortex/application.conf then restart the cortex service.

 EmergingThreats {
   key="MYETINTELKEYGOESHERE"
 }

When run from TheHive, it produces short and long reports such as the following:

sc-short-ET_1_0.png

sc-long-ET-1_1_0.png

sc-long-ET-2_1_0.png

sc-long-ET-3_1_0.png

sc-long-ET-4_1_0.png

sc-long-ET-5_1_0.png
TheHive: EmergingThreats 1.0 Analyzer – Short and Long Report Samples

Shodan

The Shodan analyzer is the first submission by Sébastien Larinier. It lets you retrieve key Shodan information on domains and IP addresses.

This analyzer comes in two flavors:

  • Shodan_Host: get Shodan information on a host.
  • Shodan_Search: get Shodan information on a domain.

Requirements

You need to create a Shodan account and retrieve the associated API Key. For
best results, it is advised to get a Membership level account, otherwise a free one can be used.

Supply the API key as the value for the key parameter, add the lines below to the config section of /etc/cortex/application.conf then restart the cortex service.

Shodan {
  key= "myawesomeapikey"
}

When run from TheHive, it produces short and long reports such as the following:

sc-short-shodan_1_0.png

sc-long-shodan_1_0.png
TheHive: Shodan 1.0 Analyzer – Short and Long Report Samples

Miscellaneous Fixes and Improvements

  • #100 : support both Cuckoo versions – by Garavaglia Andrea
  • #113 : Cuckoo Analyzer requires final slash – by Garavaglia Andrea
  • #93 : VirusTotal URL Scan Bug
  • #101 : Missing olefile in MsgParser requirements
  • #126 : PhishTank analyzer doesn’t work – by Ilya Glotov

Update TheHive Report Templates

If you are using TheHive, get the last version of  the report templates and import them into TheHive.

Running Into Trouble?

Shall you encounter any difficulty, please join our  user forum, contact us on Gitter, or send us an email at support@thehive-project.org. We will be more than happy to help!

Training VM Updated with Mellifera 13.2

Two days after the release of  Mellifera 13.2 (TheHive 2.13.2), we have updated the training VM with this version. You can download it from the following location:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/0B3G-Due88gfQMGZ2RjRlc1RfQ2M/view?usp=sharing

To ensure that your download went through nicely, check the file’s SHA256 hash which must be equal to the following value:

15dc0a1d1ef099abd852fefff3a12c1b752573c01b133fc6e643dd2fceb1d46f

The system’s login is thehive and the associated password is thehive1234.

Use It

You can start using TheHive & Cortex once the VM is started. To access TheHive, point your browser to the following URL:

http://IP_OF_VM:9000

For Cortex, the port is 9999:

http://IP_OF_VM:9999

Where to Go from Here?

Please read the associated documentation page to configure the services on your training virtual machine and plug it with MISP.

Need Help?

Something does not work as expected? No worries, we got you covered. Please join our  user forum, contact us on Gitter, or send us an email at support@thehive-project.org. We are here to help.

WOT? Did You See a Yeti Hugging a Cuckoo?

While many are enjoying the summer holidays, the busy bees of TheHive Project have been working hard lately to develop new Cortex analyzers and review few of those submitted by our growing and thriving user community, bringing the grand total to 27. Yes, you read that right. Cortex can leverage 27 analyzers to help you analyze observables very simply in many different ways.

The latest update to the Cortex-analyzers repository contains 3 new analyzers: Yeti, Cuckoo Sandbox and WOT, described below. And your first step to benefit from them should consist of refreshing your master working copy on your Cortex instance:

$ cd where/your/analyzers/are
$ git pull master

Yeti

YETI is a FOSS platform meant to organize observables, indicators of compromise, TTPs, and knowledge on threats in a single, unified repository.  It is mainly developed by fellow APT busters Thomas Chopitea and Gael Muller (who said France doesn’t produce good software?).

The new Cortex analyzer for this platform lets you make API calls to YETI and retrieve all available information pertaining to a domain, a fully qualified domain name, an IP address, a URL or a hash.

To be able to use the analyzer edit the Cortex configuration file (/etc/cortex/application.conf) and add the following lines:

Yeti {
    # URL of the Yeti server: example: http://120.0.0.1:5000
    url = ""
}

When called from TheHive, the following output is produced:

sc-YETI-short.png

sc-YETI-long.png
TheHive: YETI analyzer — Short and Long Report Samples

CuckooSandox

The Cuckoo Sandbox analyzer has been submitted by Andrea Garavaglia (Thanks!) and you can use it to analyze files and URLs with Cuckoo Sandbox.

By default, we chose to limit analysis to TLP:WHITE and TLP:GREEN observables for OPSEC reasons, in case your Cuckoo server provides Internet access to potentially harmful files. If you want to use it with TLP:AMBER or TLP:RED observables, edit CuckooSanbox_File_analysis.json or CuckooSanbox_URL_analysis.json and change the max_tlp parameter to 2 or 3.

To use the analyzer, edit the Cortex configuration file and add the following lines:

CuckooSandbox {
   url = “http://mycuckoosandbox”
}

When called from TheHive, the following output is produced:

sc-CSB-short.png

sc-CSB-long.png
TheHive: Cuckoo Sandbox Analyzer — Short and Long Report Samples

WOT

The WOT analyzer was also submitted by Andrea Garavaglia (kudos!). Use it to check reputation of a given domain on the Web of Trust service. It takes domains and FQDNs as input.

An API key is needed to use this service, and has to be added in the Cortex configuration file:

WOT {
    # API key of the Web of Trust account
    key=“”
}

When called from TheHive, the following output is produced:

sc-WOT-short.png.png

sc-WOT-long.png.png
TheHive: WOT Analyzer — Short and Long Report Samples

Support

Something does not work as expected? No worries, please join our  user forum, contact us on Gitter, or send us an email at support@thehive-project.org. We are here to help.